I feel passionately about enabling people to produce their own food in their own backyards (or patio, rooftop, inside windows, etc...).  I've come across many ideas, and tried some, and hope some of the following ideas and information will be useful for you.  :)

The following is meant to be a spring board of ideas and information.  If any of these topics interest you, I suggest Google and "how to" books.  :)  I've found online forums and local practitioners extremely helpful.  :)  Extension offices are available in every county and are excellent resources to find local information (Utah's website here).

The Harvest Haven landscape in Jordan Valley's Conservation Garden Park requires only 17.11" of water a season, compared to the typical landscape requirement of 50"

***Edible landscaping***

Why not landscape using plants that actually produce food?  Many flowers, such as daylilies, are edible (I think tulip petals taste better than spinach), and I'd much rather have a currant hedge to make jelly from rather than boring boxwoods.  
Rosalind Creasy has been considered the mother of edible landscaping.  She teaches how to make gardens look beautiful in the landscape.  
USU Extension Sustainability has articles on edibles here Favorite website to find edible plants.  Sell nice stock.

Open-pollinated or heritage varieties
Plants that are open-pollinated can be used for saving seed because the seedlings will be like the plant it came from.  Hybrids are plants that result from pollen crossing between two different varieties, and while the first generation offspring of those two different parents may be a good crop plant, the seed saved from the hybrid will not grow into plants that are like its source plant. 

Plant varieties best suited to your environment
Utah: extension article
seed-saving and starting, plant propagation
Basic article
Cloning plants

My favorite seed websites  *LOVE* access to 8 garden catalogs on one website.  *LOVE* Ma & Pop operation where they save seeds from many heirlooms.  Amazing.

light stand
I grow most of our tomatoes, melons and peppers from seed, using a light stand my dad built for me.  A lot more rustic one than this, but you can get the idea of what to use.

Extending the growing season 
Colorado Extension Frost Protection 1
Colorado Extension 2 Frost Protection 2
USU Extension High Tunnels
USU Extension Cold frames

Square foot gardening
In square foot gardening, the garden is planted in a series of one foot squares. Many small plants or just one large plant are sown in each square. Because the plants are grown in groups and not rows, more plants fit in less space.

Vertical gardening
Grow plants upwards to use space efficiently.  Makes harvest easier.
Nice introduction article
Basic vertical gardening
Grow upwards in rain gutters

Turn organic wastes from the garden and kitchen into fertilizer for the garden.  :)

DIY Earthboxes (self-watering containers)
Earthboxes are self-watering containers that allow high yields of crops in small spaces.  Great for those whose land doesn't have great soil.  These links are suggestions for how to build your own.  
37 page document
Blog post

Higher value crops
Focus on growing higher value crops such as fruit or greens and buy cheap staples like potatoes and corn.


Mushroom growing

Berry production
Berry production allows fruit harvests in only one or two years with higher efficiency than waiting 5+ years for fruit trees to yield.  Raspberries, blackberries and strawberries are great for beginners.  Currants, gooseberries and jostaberries make amazing pies, jams, and jellies.  Blueberries take a lot of time and extra resources because they need acidic soil and Utah soils tend to be alkaline.

Dwarf tree production
Grow fruit trees on dwarf rootstalks to get harvests earlier.  Allows more varieties in a smaller space.  Make sure you have enough trees to pollinate the varieties you plant.

Other small fruit trees
bush cherries
old time peach varieties: here, here, here and here

Grow plants in water-cycle systems.  Harder to grow really good fruiting crops.

*THIS IS AWESOME* Indoor hydroponic systems.  Check out their video here.  Great for inspiration even if you don't want to apply it.

Many books and websites available for learning if that plant in your yard is edible.  Stinging nettle soup tastes great, dandelions can be used in salads or a coffee substitute, and that lions mane mushroom tastes great fried.  Notice: You can't sue me if you don't do your homework and eat a bad nightshade.  :)

Sharing garden responsibility 

We use underground drip irrigation.  It uses water more efficiently by delivering it right to the root zone, reducing evaporation loss.  The specific kind is called T-tape, found here.

Creative ideas
upside down tomato cages
bicycle trellis
strawberry cinderblock planter
growing in used car tires and here
burlap sack gardens

Living walls
Grow plants upwards on walls.  Edible or not.